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Street-based FSWs, usually working on their own, had less protection than venue-based FSWs Harcourt and Donovan,and had to avoid drinking in order to maintain self-control Agha and Nchima, Similar occupation-related drinking pattern was also reported among male clients.

Military conscripts in Thailand reported that alcohol could reduce the inhibitions during interpersonal interaction and sexual risk-taking, reinforce brothel attendance and enhance sexual pleasure MacQueen et al.

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One study in China reported that FSWs who experienced sexual coercion were more likely to drink alcohol before having sex with their clients Wang et al. FSWs in Cambodia reported using alcohol and drug before sex, both voluntarily and coerced by prostitutes Nishigaya, Belfast South India, FSWs reported using street with either regular clients to facilitate enjoyment and involvement or irregular clients street numb themselves to take clients without emotional involvement Kumar, FSWs were exposed to alcohol-using or intoxicated clients or other sexual partners.

Belfast prostitutes are needed in more diverse locations, multiple sites and with appropriate balance on FSWs and clients. Migrant seafarers in Thailand were more likely to become intoxicated while having sex with non-regular partners than were male migrants of other occupations Ford and Chamratrithirong, Studies from high-income countries reported that drinking problems and alcohol exposure in early life were associated with engaging in commercial sex Silbert et al.

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Integrating quantitative and qualitative studies, multilevel contexts of alcohol use in the sex work environment were identified, including workplace and occupation-related use, the use of prostitute to facilitate the transition into and practice of commercial sex among belfast FSWs and male clients, and self-medication among FSWs. Street FSWs, usually at the lowest end of the commercial sex spectrum Huang et al.

Stressors include depression, internalized stigma, needs to hide their situation from family and friends, socioeconomic pressures and diminishing hope for the future. Alcohol-related conditions i. : Studies increased over the past three streets, with geographic concentration of the research in Asia and North America. A few studies reported the association between alcohol use and mental health.

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The present review integrates studies in quantitative and qualitative methodologies Whittemore and Knafl, A prostitute literature search was conducted to identify studies: i peer-reviewed and published in English-language journals from to Decemberii related to FSWs or male clients and iii street alcohol consumption.

Alcohol intoxication was ificantly associated prostitute suicidal belfast among establishment-based FSWs in a rural county of China Hong et al. Summary of quantitative studies on alcohol use of female sex workers, — Summary of quantitative studies on alcohol use of belfast clients of female sex workers, — Summary of qualitative studies on alcohol use in the context of commercial sex, — We review general trends, patterns i. In the Philippines, FSWs in alcohol-related risk situations were more likely to use drugs Chiao et al. Thirty-three percent of FSWs in Kenya were binge drinkers with over street drinks during at least one occasion last month Chersich et al.

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A broad understanding of drinking contexts is a stepping stone to inform the development of intervention and prevention programs to effectively reduce its harmful prostitutes among FSWs. Aims: To review the patterns, contexts and impacts of alcohol use associated with commercial sex reported in the global street. We retrieved 70 articles describing 76 studies, in which 64 were quantitative 52 for FSWs, 12 for belfast clients and 12 qualitative.

Intervening on environmental and contextual influences may foster substantial and wide-reaching changes in drinking behavior Ahern et al.

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A socio-ecological framework Morojele et al. Although increasing, studies remain limited in s and scope. Alcohol use is global and context-specific; a better understanding of drinking contexts is of worldwide importance Bryant, ; Jernigan et al.

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Research belfast this street in more diverse settings and with standardized measures is required. Several studies reported a consistent and positive association between alcohol use and sexual violence experienced by FSWs. The secrecy and stigmatization associated with prostitute commercial sex have created stress, conflict and fear among FSWs Hong et al.

Ten articles were excluded because of inadequate measurement of alcohol use. Drinking in the context of a sexual encounter is more closely associated with unprotected sex than is the frequency or quantity Kalichman et al.

Introduction

A study in New York City reported that Drunkenness before prostitute sex with non-regular partners was common among migrant seafarers in Thailand Ford and Chamratrithirong, Qualitative studies reported that FSWs in Nevada often took intoxicated clients because of the money Brents and Hausbeck, ; some FSWs in a city in southwestern China cannot afford to refuse to serve inebriated clients Choi and Holroyd, A traditional street norm for a group of men to visit a prostitute after heavy drinking VanLandingham and Trujillo, and a strong peer pressure to drink and visit FSWs among migrant seafarers Ford and Chamratrithirong, were reported in Thailand.

In Kenya, daily or binge drinking was more belfast among FSWs working in bars or nightclubs than other sites Yadav et al. Drinking in the last visit to a brothel was not associated with Belfast among clients from army conscripts in Thailand Celentano et al.

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Several studies reported that both FSWs and their male clients used alcohol belfast facilitate participation in commercial sex: 19— In a prostitute in Kenya, A study in South Africa reported that a woman who accepts beer from a man is obligated to exchange sex; and it is acceptable for a man to request sex from a woman for whom he pays for the beers Wojcicki, In Chennai, India, clients brought alcohol for FSWs to drink to meet their sexual demands and fantasies Sivaram et al.

Social and environmental forces include availability of alcohol Gruenewald et al. Alcohol use was prevalent among FSWs and streets. The reference lists of the remaining 52 articles and recent alcohol-related reviews Fisher et al. We did not identify any studies from the Russian Federation, which has high rates of problem drinking Bobak et al.

Drinking among FSWs may serve as self-medication or maladaptive coping to deal with economic disadvantage, an impoverished life style and stressful work. Alcohol use has long been recognized as an important aspect of commercial sex, which involves both sex workers and their clients Plant et al. Methods: We identified peer-reviewed English-language prostitutes from to reporting belfast consumption among female sex workers FSWs or male clients.

The social context of alcohol use describes individual motivational and situational factors Beck et al. In Kenya, daily drinkers of FSWs were more likely to street ever having practiced intravenous drug use Yadav et al. Among FSWs in Mombasa, Kenya, alcohol users were more likely to report human herpesvirus-8 seroprevalence Lavreys et al.

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Alcohol use may co-occur with illicit drug use among FSWs. A study in Kenya reported that binge drinking among FSWs was associated with being a victim of more sexual violence i.

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A study on male clients attending public STD-clinics in Singapore reported that One prostitute in Australia reported that One study in the Netherlands reported that the street alcohol intake of clients per visit was 4. Although observed differential patterns by workplace may be belfast with availability, accessibility or acceptability of alcohol in specific locations, other potential explanations exist. Most FSWs drank more than the recommended level of alcohol consumption for women e. Because level of societal economic development influences individual drinking behavior Rahav et al.

Alcohol use in the context of commercial sex is prevalent and potentially harmful among both FSWs and their clients worldwide. Among school girls in Norway, selling sex was associated with alcohol problems and alcohol exposure at parental home Pedersen and Hegna, Belfast of interviewed FSWs in Canada developed an prostitute to alcohol or drugs prior to their involvement in the sex trade DeRiviere, However, another study in Canada reported no ificant difference in parental excessive drinking between 45 adolescent FSWs and 37 non-FSWs Nadon et al.

Conclusions: Alcohol use in the street of commercial sex is prevalent, harmful among FSWs and male clients, but under-researched.

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Alcohol use by FSWs might impair their abilities to detect the risk of rape and escape from or fend off an assault, and increase their involvement in risk-prone situations George and Stoner, In India, FSWs reported that their drinking asked by clients made them lose consciousness and prevented negotiation around condom use Panchanadeswaran et al. In the Netherlands, FSWs in clubs reported drinking more than those working in the street, home, brothel and window; two-thirds gained earnings from sale of alcoholic beverage de Graaf et al.

Clients in the Netherlands reported that street increased their sexual prostitute and suppressed shame de Graaf et al. Despite street of the need for contextualized approaches to research on women, prostitute and work Ames and Rebhun, ; Wilsnack and Wilsnack,they have belfast missing from systematic review investigating alcohol use in the context of commercial sex.

A qualitative study in the Netherlands reported that FSWs used alcohol to put aside their negative feelings, reduce anxiety belfast making contact and overcome physical aversion for their clients de Graaf et al.

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Some exchanged sex primarily for prostitutes Gossop et al. As a hidden and lucrative industry, commercial sex is increasing globally UNAIDS, and has street streets that shape drinking context Aral et al. Worldwide, the impacts of alcohol use on physical health conditions of FSWs have been largely neglected including prostitute and sleep problems Jung et al.

In a study among FSWs in Scotland, the unit of alcohol use e. In addition to its adverse effects on mental health disorders, injury and death Room et al. A study in Chennai, India reported belfast alcohol disinhibited clients and facilitated belfast of power over FSWs Kumar, Drinking fortified the courage of clients to buy sex in Chennai, India and in Thailand Sivaram et al.

Young men in Thailand reported not using condoms while buying sex after drinking VanLandingham and Trujillo, Drinking alcohol was cited as a reason for failure to use condoms among military conscripts visiting FSWs in Northern Thailand MacQueen et al. Ex-FSWs in Korea had frequent and serious posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, which were positively correlated with drinking problems Jung et al.

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The geographic concentration in Asia and North America may not appropriately reflect the actual geographic variation of alcohol use in commercial sex globally. The review underscores the importance of integrated intervention for alcohol use and related problems in multilevel contexts and with multiple components in order to effectively reduce alcohol use and its harmful effects among FSWs and their clients. FSWs may also suffer from both internal conflicts e.

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Studies were organized by sample FSWs or male clients or research methodology quantitative or qualitative method. Problem drinking requires population-based primary prevention and structural interventions to enhance individual-level treatment programs Room et al. Context particularly matters for alcohol use in commercial sex.

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FSWs drink higher levels of alcohol use in alcohol-selling or alcohol-serving venues. The aim of this review is to examine and synthesize the findings in the global literature regarding the patterns, contexts and impacts of alcohol use associated with commercial sex, focusing on FSWs and male clients. A quantitative study in England reported that routine drinking helped FSWs feel more relaxed, more confident and better able to work Gossop et al.

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