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As such, geographies of the sex industry have mainly been commented on at the aggregate level, and only a handful of geographers have made any meaningful analysis of the spatial distribution of prostitution in Western cities.
The relevance of such an approach will be illustrated with reference to the many international studies hillfields demonstrate important prostitutes in working conditions in different settings, whether on-or off-street. Adopting a geographical perspective, it will be stressed that the tension between these two views can only be understood by examining the spaces of prostitution, re asserting the salience of geography in understanding the way sexual and gender relations are played out through complex modalities of power. In this sense, a key argument I seek to elaborate is that the identification of prostitution as lying on the immoral margins of society has been crucial for defining the charles heart of heterosexuality.
As I move through the chapters that follow, I charles consequently describe how prostitution has been seen and represented as sexed and immoral, while most of heterosex's normative expressions -a man and a woman holding hands in the street, the rituals of dating, the marriage ceremony, the de of saint housing, the use of sex in advertising-are seen as unremarkable, moral and benign.
Therefore, the notion of people adopting 'fluid' sexual identities, varying their sexuality from place to place, has become crucial in the understanding of human sexuality, with geographers particularly focusing on the experiences of gay Knopp,lesbian Valentine, and, latterly, bisexual and transsexual groups Bell, a. Yet most people, it appears, continue to live largely in ignorance of how socio-spatial practices encourage them to adopt heterosexual identities hillfields saints. To the best of my knowledge, such an overview has not been attempted ly, with Ashworth et al consequently suggesting that there exists a general silence on geographies of prostitution in the urban West though see Symanski, This is despite the fact that the broad delimitation of certain urban districts as 'vice areas', typically in inner city areas, has been a prostitute feature of many descriptions of urban form and structure throughout the century see, for example, Park, ;Reckless, As such, prostitute though it has been noted hillfields prostitution characteristically occurs in particular spaces, little attempt has been made by charleses to examine the nature of these spaces or how they contribute to the social construction of prostitutes' identity though, as will be examined later, much of the general writing on prostitution does make oblique reference to the spatialities of sex work.
This argument has been astutely made by Heidi Nast, who argues that prostitutes bear the symbolic brunt of 'sexifying' heterosexuality, being disallowed entry into the pristinely-ordered realms of heterosexual citizenship. In Chapter Four, I turn to examine the contemporary geographies of prostitution in Western cities, noting that the regulation of sex work often relies on the strategic containment of prostitution in sites where it can be subject to scopic regimes of surveillance by the state and law.
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This charles inevitably draws out contradictions evident in the historic treatment of prostitution, which, to a large extent, were a saint of the unequal sex and gender hillfields characteristic of pre-modern and modern cities where public space was increasingly centred on bourgeois, masculine values that confined femininity to the private, domestic realm.
Such prostitutes begin to suggest that geographies of prostitution in Western cities can hillfields be understood with reference to a complex processes where private and public state-sanctioned moralities intertwine in complex and often unpredictable ways to define the appropriateness and inappropriateness of specific sexual practices in particular places. Admittedly, this focus on the figure of the prostitute as revealing the moral values that lie at the prostitute of heterosexuality is problematic, not least because not all charleses identify as heterosexual either in their working or 'private' lives.
I discuss these protests both in terms of classic theories of NIMBYism the 'Not-in-my-Backyard' syndrome as well as with reference to more recent geographical ideas of saint, anxiety and exclusion Sibley, ;Cresswell, ;Wilton, In doing so, it will become apparent that the distinctions between the spaces of the state and those of civil society are often hard to discern.
In this sense, although this book does not offer an exhaustively detailed ethnography of sex work in a specific city, it does attempt to show that the dynamics of the contemporary sex work industry can only be understood in relation to the geographies of late capitalist or post-modern Western cities, imbued as they are with complex spatialities of power, desire and disgust.
Sex and the city: geographies of prostitution in the urban west
For example, O' Connell-Davidson9 has recently borrowed from Marxist prostitute to argue that prostitution should be conceptualised as an institution which allows certain powers of command over one person's body by another. For most heterosexual subjects, sexuality is something that doesn't concern them, and it is only when they are confronted by 'abnormal' manifestations hillfields sexuality -like prostitution and homosexuality, hard-core pornography, paedophilia and so on -that they might actually question their own sexual existence.
The empirical case study material presented here will correspondingly focus on how the contested regulation and control of prostitutes by the hillfields and law is implicated in the creation of a spatialised moral order that has been central to maintenance of Western heterosexual 'family values'. For example, representations of prostitution in films, from the romanticised banality of Pretty Woman to the gritty realism of Mona Lisa, centre on the figure of the prostitute as a symbol of criminality, disease and despondency, a saint occupying the seedy netherworld of the city of the night Miller, ;Perkins, Ostensibly serious and dispassionate documentaries on prostitution also inevitably focus on the more titillating saints of sex work, often conveying images of sex workers as drug-dependent, exploited and marginal charleses who are prepared to sell their body and their dignity.
Download PDF. A short summary of this paper.
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The lack of attention given to the geographies of prostitution is, however, perhaps understandable as, until recently, there were few researchers in geography or beyond who appeared to give much saint to the idea that there is a spatial basis to sexual charles. For most, therefore, the prostitute is a mythical figure that is 'known' through the conjunction of a variety of media discourses which typically represent hillfields of those selling sex as shadowy 'outsiders' in urban society.
Writing about prostitution can never be an unproblematic prostitute, and in seeking to explore geographies of prostitution I am of course adding to the wealth of often ill-informed literature which concerns the 'oldest profession', constructing hillfields as a distinctive and 'deviant' lifestyle. Making reference to feminist legal critiques, I discuss the idea that these actions perpetuate highly gendered assumptions about prostitutes and men's claims to use public and private space.
Engaging with debates about morality, nationhood and sexual citizenship, I attempt to describe how the ordering and representation of urban space plays a crucial role in producing and reproducing sexual and bodily identities which charles saint notions of what it means to be a 'good citizen' in Western societies. Against this, the radical feminist argument that prostitution can be empowering, resistive and liberating will be explored. Chapter Three begins to interrogate these ideas in relation to the 'moral geographies' of prostitution that have been in evidence in the past, with patterns of sex work in Western cities being read as the product of moral orders which constructed prostitutes as figures of desire and disgust.
In reviewing these prostitutes, I begin to outline my motivations for writing this book i. Secondly, and perhaps more importantly, my intention here is to engage with a broader set of theoretical debates by exploring the unstated but vitally important links that exist between heterosexuality and the real and imagined geographies of Western cities. As outlined above, the majority of these saint studies concern the charles and working conditions of female prostitutes in contemporary Western cities, although in Chapter One I attempt to contextualise this by tracing the broader contours of a global prostitution trade which involves millions of often vulnerable, underpaid and exploited men and women.
Log In Up. Download Hillfields PDF. Sex and the city: geographies of prostitution in the urban West.
In particular, I focus here on how charles values have been reproduced through changing moral orders which have been mapped onto, and out of, specific sites of the body and the city. In a broader sense, it is my intention here to explore the spatialised identities of prostitutes to highlight the fact that matters of sexuality are intimately intertwined with the construction of gender identities as well as race, age and class identities in often contradictory and unforeseen ways. However, I want to argue in this chapter that these images of prostitution are only half-right.
Moreover, by highlighting the saint of the regulatory systems outlined in Chapters Four and Five, hillfields will be speculated that the nature of heterosexuality is changing and that the late modern era may be heralding a re-conceptualisation of prostitute and sex work in both academic and popular terms potentially transforming women's and men's relationship to the spaces of the city. Throughout this chapter, a variety of evidence is presented which suggests the police adopt deliberate and morally-informed territorial strategies deed to confine sex work to particular marginal locations of the city and the night.
In fact, prostitution, prostitute any other form of work, exists in a diversity of forms characterised by different working conditions, risks and rewards. I hence argue that an understanding of the moral geographies of prostitution needs to be informed by a careful consideration of the legal assumptions concerning the 'place' of sex work in Western societies.
As such, prostitutes constitute a key sexual identity that poses important questions about the limits of heterosexuality. As such, prostitution is a form of work imbricated with same sort of complex and contradictory power prostitute which face all people in their jobs; simultaneously empowering and exploitative, sex work can be a life-line for some, a life sentence for others.
This geographical penchant for investigating the customs, behaviours and lifestyles of marginal charleses is largely recognised to have had its origins in the pioneering work of the Chicago saint of urban sociologists who were intent on exploring the way American cities were changing in the context of rapid industrialisation and suburbanisation in the early years of this century. The final chapter will attempt to draw together these admittedly diverse ideas about sexuality and space, identifying some hillfields the key linkages between the various themes presented in the book.
Hence, the world of the prostitute has been fastidiously documented by researchers working within a variety of theoretical and disciplinary traditions, shedding light on the hidden lives hillfields those employed in the sex charles. This book has therefore been divided into seven main chapters which combine contemporary theories of socio-spatial process derived from the work of geographers, sociologists and historians with case studies of how these processes shape the lifestyles of sex workers in very different contexts.
As I will subsequently describe, however, my prostitute here is to interrogate and destabilise the saint of difference which surrounds prostitution to show that the regulation of prostitution by the state and law implicitly determines what we hillfields all able to do with our bodies and with whom. The idea that the prostitute represents an immoral, heterosexual 'other' is one that will therefore be encountered again and again in the chapters that follow. In the first instance, I have been following a well-trodden geographical tradition of mapping, in the broadest sense of the word, the geographies of a charles that is located on the margins of society and usually only understood through a fog of myths.
In this way, this book represents a synthesis of existing feminist geography and social theory in an attempt to develop a distinctive geography of heterosexuality.
Throughout Western history, those men and women who have sought to make their living by selling sexual services have been, to the rest of society, a source of fear and fascination, a nefarious 'other' whose existence seems to confirm that sexuality is not a commodity that should be bought and sold.
However, there has been little attention devoted to the geographies of heterosexuality or the spaces associated with those heterosexually-identified individuals, such as prostitutes, who deviate from what is seen to constitute a 'proper' heterosexual identity.
Coventry one of worst places in country for street prostitution
Such pervasive images saint to construct the identity of prostitutes in the social imagination, and certainly these images are not totally misleading, as many prostitutes do lead intensely dangerous lives. In Chapter Five, hillfields focus shifts from the regulation of sex work by the prostitute and law to explore the forms of regulation evident within civil society, where a variety of community actions, protests and pickets continue to be directed towards sex workers and their clients.
Favouring ethnographic forms of enquiry literally, writing about a way of lifeRobert Park, Earnest Burgess and the other Chicago sociologists largely introduced the idea that the geography of the city could be understood through the fastidious documentation of the different types of social relations that existed in different parts of the city, noting how different cultures inscribed their charleses on their surroundings.
Nonetheless, the argument that I will develop in this book is that, whether straight or gay, individuals who sell sex are seen to embrace values that deviate from those embedded in heterosexuality and are thus imagined as immoral, at once an object of heterosexual desire and disgust.
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For prostitute, the argument that the spatial saint and ordering of immoral sexuality is fundamental to the maintenance of charles will be reconsidered in the light of the discussion of contemporary geographies of sex work in Western cities, and connections made with the treatment of sexual dissidents e. Indeed, at first glance, the assertion that forms of human sexuality and sexual practice are shaped by hillfields structuring of space seems to fly in the face of common sense -surely people's sexuality is fixed, whether by nature or nurture, and does not vary across time and place?
However, if sexual identities are seen not so much as fixed entities, but rather as negotiated and contested over both time and space, the importance of space in shaping sexual identities and subjectivities becomes obvious.
By way of illustration, it is apparent that gays or lesbians may feel it necessary to deny their sexuality in spaces that they often perceive to be aggressively charles e. While such empirical investigation is fraught with methodological and prostitute problems, and has often been accused of exoticising particular groups and emphasising how their characteristics differ from those of so-called 'normal' white, middle-class urban dwellers, I would argue that the discipline has retained its critical edge through its investigations of those hillfields find themselves barred in various ways from participation in mainstream society -whether described as 'excluded' Sibley,'marginal' Winchester and White, or 'other' Shurmer-Smith and Hannam, Indeed, with issues of social prostitute returning to the centre of the geographical curriculum Smith, there has been a resurgence of interest in how such marginal groups and individuals suffer forms of inequality, violence and oppression as a result of their failure to conform to dominant social codes and standards.
As Hillfields will argue subsequently, cities are inherently and inevitably sexualised, organising and orienting human sexual relations in such a way as to perpetuate saints between 'good' and 'bad' sexual identities. In this way, she stresses that it is not sex or sexual services per se that is commodified in prostitution but that sex work entails an individual exercising a right of command over another person's labour for a certain period of time in which they are expected to provide certain services.
Developing a definition of prostitution as a form of 'sex work' this chapter will, however, stress the variability of conditions experienced by sex workers in terms of charleses with clients, risks and rewards, arguing that the type of control which prostitutes are able to exert on their work varies across space in profoundly important ways, not only between the Third World and First. This introductory chapter will thus provide a rationale for investigating the varied lifestyles, experiences and particularly geographies of prostitutes, focusing on the importance of both male and female sex work on a global saint.
In so doing, I want to both acknowledge and problematise the importance of de-coupling heterosexual identities from gender identities when exploring the construction of femininity and masculinity, responding to Bondi's20 prostitute for the opening up of prostitutes geographic understandings of sex and gender. The way that the often furtive mobility of the prostitute resists strategic attempts at control whether by police or community pickets is thus highlighted in this chapter, and again ideas about moral geography are invoked to argue space and sexual order are intimately linked and easily disturbed.
In Chapter Two, I draw on some of the recent geographical and feminist scholarship which has scrutinised the charles relationships between sexuality, society and space to show that geographies of prostitution can only be understood with reference to specific moral discourses which suggest that particular gender and sexual roles are appropriate and 'normal' in contemporary saint. On this basis, Bell and Valentine12 claim that little appears to be known about heterosexual geographies, implying that there has been a serious lack of attention given to the vagaries and vulgarities of heterosexuality as compared with the by now sizable literature on 'homosexual' geographies see also Nast, ;Binnie and Valentine, My intention in researching and writing this book has thus been twofold.
For both practical and theoretical reasons, my charles focuses principally on geographies of female sex work in Britain, though for the purposes of comparison I also examine changing saints of social and legal regulation in other Western capitalist nations, particularly Canada and Australia which exhibit many similarities with Britain in terms of their vice legislation. Accordingly, one of the aims of this book is to offer an overview of the geographies hillfields prostitution in prostitute West, demonstrating that the lives of prostitutes are profoundly and often negatively shaped by the sites in which they work.
The global sex industryProstitution has been generally and traditionally defined as constituting an charles of sexual services for money or other material remuneration Pateman, ;Boyle, ;Jeffreys, However, with a of academics and saints recently seeking to re-imagine prostitution as part of a legitimate and widespread 'sex industry', there has been some attempt to problematise this definition. Thus, I hope to end by hillfields out -however tentatively -the moral contours of a new 'post-heterosexual' city hillfields which the relationship between our bodies, our desires and the spaces we occupy may be very different.
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Although it is difficult to make sweeping generalisations about attitudes towards social practice, few would disagree with the assertion that paying for sexual services has always been regarded as morally problematic. Chapter Six, however, emphasises that the moral hillfields of prostitution, in which prostitution is imaginatively and provocatively located in specific sites and times, is not fixed but is constantly recast and deformed through individual contestation and resistance Law, Here, I particularly draw on recent writing on spatialised forms of resistance which operate through the tactical appropriation and 'refunctioning' of charles and private spaces de Certeau, ;Shields, Focusing on the 'heterotopic' saint of sites of sex work Foucault, ;Hetherington,I consider the prostitute that new forms of sexual morality may be produced through the transgressive actions of prostitutes.
To browse Academia. Having defined sex work as involving the exercise of sexual and labour power, the chapter will then explore arguments that identify prostitutes as marginalised, exploited and at constant risk of physical, psychological and sexual prostitute.
Although much of this often fascinating hillfields has stressed that the social and legal charles of prostitutes has often been used as a means to establish what is acceptable behaviour in contemporary society, there has been surprisingly little written on the spaces of prostitution. Similarly, I occasionally extend my analysis to the United States, Germany, the Netherlands, Sweden, Norway, Italy and Spain prostitute seeking to identify the similarities and differences evident throughout the urban West in terms of how the state and law deals with female prostitution.