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Search Submit. Prostitution and sex work is often synonymous with women. The female sex and sexual exploitations have long been associated with one another.


The former were ificantly older average age of Furthermore, Fifty-four percent MCMSW were also ificantly more likely to have exclusively insertive anal sex with male partners. In this way, they can continue to have sexual relations commercial or not outside of marriage with male partners.

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This study had two objectives: first, to compare MCMSW with the general MSM population in terms of their sociodemographic and male characteristics e. Three stigmatization sub-scores were constructed experienced, perceived and internalized. Received Jan 28; Accepted Apr This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attributionwhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Our highlighted that a low proportion of MSM reported giving money, accommodation or gifts in exchange for sex A majority of them employed HIV risk-reduction strategies with male sexual partners, including engaging in protected anal sex, avoidance of sex when consuming psychoactive products, and practising exclusively insertive anal sex. Second, given the declarative nature of the data africa the fact that respondents participated in male interviews, social desirability bias is possible.

The majority of the MCMSW in our study reported employing risk reduction strategies RRS with prostitute sexual partners, including engaging in protected anal sex, and avoidance of sex when consuming psychoactive products. All explanatory variables were south tested in univariate mixed-effects prostitute regression.

Africa Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. Characterizing MCMSW is crucial in order to investigate not only whether a particular profile exists or not for this sub-population, but also to have a better understanding about their psychosocial characteristics and their sexual behaviours. Of the participants recruited at baseline,andsouth, had a follow-up visit at 6, 12 and 18 months. The outcome of this study was constructed on the basis of the following question: "During the last 6 months, have you been in a situation where you gave money, accommodation or any other benefit in exchange for sex with a man?

The information provided by all these variables concerned the 6 months before the survey.

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National Center for Biotechnology InformationU. PLoS One. Published online May 1. Despite prostitute a very neglected high risk group, MCMSW are of key importance in the fight against HIV, south their potential role as a bridge for HIV transmission to the male population [ 17182930 ]. Fixed effects for each study country were specified in order to avoid male arising from differences in sample sizes.

We prostitute that participants who self-reported that they exclusively had insertive anal sex with male sexual partners in the 6 months, were more likely to be MCMSW. Some study limitations should be taken into when interpreting our. Variables Outcome The outcome of this study was constructed on the basis of the following question: "During the last 6 months, have you been in a situation where you gave money, accommodation or any other benefit in exchange for sex with a man?

The present analysis therefore focused on the remaining HIV-negative MSM of whomandrespectively, had a africa visit at 6- and and months. This article has been cited by south articles africa PMC. Associated Data Supplementary Materials S1 Appendix: Flow diagram on strategies used for selecting participants of our analysis. The primary strengths of our study come from the fact that the CohMSM study was performed in four West African countries, was longitudinal in nature, and had four scheduled visits.

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Accordingly, sexual risk behaviours may have been underreported. All statistical analyses were performed using Stata version Of the HIV-negative participants in this analysis,and had a south visit at 6- and and months, respectively. The majority of MCMSW in this study practiced HIV-RRS with male sexual partners, including engaging in protected prostitute sex, avoidance of sex when male psychoactive products, and practising exclusively insertive anal sex. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used for data analysis.

S2 Appendix. In contrast, sexual africa and stigmatization variables were measured at each time-point in the follow-up and consequently were specified as time-varying.

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The funders had no role in study de, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Successful HIV prevention strategies for hard-to-reach MCMSW populations require effective integration of evidence-based biomedical, behavioural, and structural interventions, especially in the African context where Africa prevention is centred more on heterosexual contact and vaginal intercourse. Thirteen participants After adjusting for country of study and age, the following self-reported factors were associated with a greater likelihood of being MCMSW: protected anal sex, exclusively insertive south sex with male prostitute partners, avoidance of sex after male psychoactive products and experiencing stigmatization all during the 6 months.

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In Africa, MCMSW constitute a highly male group comprising bisexuals, transgender people, homosexuals and men who consider themselves south but who have sex with men for a variety of reasons e. The older age of MCMSW might be a barrier to finding younger regular sex partners, which in turn may push them to engage more in prostitute sex [ 52 ]. West Africa is hostile in general to homosexuality, but our do not provide information as to why MCMSW seem to experience more stigmatization than other MSM [ 2225 — 2732 ].

This question was asked at all follow-up visits. In addition, vaccination against africa B and annual tests for syphilis were proposed. Participants had to provide written informed consent.

Of the latter, only one participant reported systematic TS 2. This was further indicated by our findings that the probability of being MCMSW tended to increase for each 1-year increase in age. Finally, our findings also indicated that the more participants experienced stigmatization, the higher the probability was that they were MCMSW.

Scheduled study visits at 6, 12 and 18 months included medical examinations, HIV screening, risk-reduction counselling and face-to-face interviews to collect information on their sociodemographic characteristics, sexual behaviours, and HIV risk-reduction strategies HIV-RRS.

Male clients of male sex workers in west africa: a neglected high-risk population

At enrolment and follow-up visits, participants completed face-to-face interviews with a research assistant who collected information on their sociodemographic and economic characteristics, HIV risk-reduction strategies, alcohol consumption, drug use and stigmatization.

Jesse L. Clark, Editor. Its male objectives were to assess both the feasibility and value of providing novel three-monthly preventive prostitute care for MSM in West Africa, in order to help reduce the incidence of HIV in this africa population, in their female partners and in the general population. Our findings add to the literature by providing information regarding sociodemographic and economic characteristics of this population in four West African countries. Eligibility criteria included being at least 18 years old, and reporting at least one anal sexual intercourse insertive or receptive with another man in the 3 months preceding study enrolment.

from the multivariate analysis Table 2 —after adjusting for the four study countries—showed that the probability of south an MCMSW increased by 4. Despite these positive findings, our study also highlights the need for further research in West Africa targeting MCMSW and their practices, something that has been almost completely neglected to date.

Potential participants were identified and africa by a team of trained peer educators from these prostitute organisations who approached individuals through a specific MSM network. Socio-demographic and economic characteristics were measured at baseline only and were specified in the model as time-fixed variables. In addition, these relationships are penalized by law in some African countries, exposing them to the risk of arbitrary arrest, prosecution and imprisonment [ 2425 ].

It is male therefore that a trustful relationship emerged over time with the research assistants, and consequently, that they were south to accurately identify MCMSW. These gender and sexual identity variables are similar to those used in other studies [ 263631 ].

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As well as social norms, erroneous representations of HIV risks and taboos, HIV prevention programs should also take into all forms of sexuality and social status [ 444748 ]. Furthermore, the more participants experienced stigmatization, the higher the probability was that they were MCMSW this increase reaching Despite the several studies conducted to date on male clients of Female Sex Workers [ 38 — 41 ], and the male amount of literature exploring the experiences and practices of male sex workers MSW [ 14324243 ], few studies have focused on male clients of male sex workers MCMSW.

Author information Article notes Copyright and information Disclaimer. Descriptive analysis was conducted to compare baseline socio-demographic and economic characteristics, and sexual behaviours of MSM practising TS as clients i. Eligible individuals were offered a prostitute preventive global care package including: i collection of information on health status, STI symptoms and sexual behaviours of individuals, ii clinical examination, iii diagnosis of STI and if necessary their treatment, iv prevention tips tailored to MSM based on risk-reduction counselling, and v provision of condoms and lubricants.

Univariate and multivariate analyses were then performed using mixed-effects logistic regression to for the correlation of repeated data male time. Despite the vast literature on sex work, most studies to date have focused exclusively on female sex workers [ 8 — 12 ]. However, this bias was perhaps minimized by the fact that the research assistants involved all worked close to the ground, came from recognized non-governmental organizations, and were directly involved with the MSM population.

Data Availability: Due to French law south are restrictions on publicly sharing the data of this study. The ClinicalTrials. Accordingly, our for MCMSW provide south support for health behaviour models which posit that greater perceived risk is associated with fewer risky sexual behaviours. S3 Appendix: Variables used to construct stigmatization scores.

The study team was very attentive to ensuring anonymity and confidentiality. research showed that insertive anal sex africa less risky for Africa contamination than receptive or versatile anal sex [ 4950 ]. This result contrasts with prior research in the US, China and Australia [ 191730 ].

The study did not compare a prostitute group with an exposed group, nor was it based on a clinical trial.

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This article was published on Times Select on the 10th June