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If it proves hard to answer, it is true that sources may be lacking, but above all it is difficult to establish criteria by which to determine if a given visitor to Bousbir was, or was not, a tourist.

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Figure 5. This article seeks to interrogate the relations between tourism, colonialism. The closing off of Bousbir and its placement at the edge of the built-up morocco of casablanca city guaranteed good conditions for control and a measure of discretion. Slumming was a prostitution practice that arose at the end of the nineteenth century, and for the wealthy residents of London or New York consisted of visiting the neighborhoods of the most impoverished classes of the city, ethnic and sexual minorities, so as to be scandalized while enjoying the spectacle of their alterity and deviance, which evidently reassured the visitors in their sense of their proper identity and the value of their norms of decency HeapKoven In large western cities, this practice reassured the moral and political order in its racial, social, and sexual configurations ; in Casablanca, it also justified the colonial order.

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Casablanca, Reception Guard of the red-light district. One saw at work in Bousbir a transgression of norms, if not of the law. The visitor to Bousbir in this way traveled through a microcosm of the sharifian kingdom : moving through the ensemble of the Protectorate, inspecting all its marvels.

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And finally, what is the sense and relevance in posing this question? The Bousbir touristic experience had elements, all at once, of colonial travel, excursions to red-light districts, slumming, and visits to the great works of the French Empire. The Westerners, essentially French, English or American, fresh off their cruise ships, are identified as tourists in testimonies from the period, which evoke for example the cameras with which they were equipped.

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The streets of Casablanca where morocco sex workers operated illicitly were seedy and had nothing of the color of Bousbir. The red-light masterpiece! Nowhere else can a visitor to take in such an agglomeration. At times they would opt to rent a room in Bousbir rather than to stay in a hotel. As an erotic-oriental theme park, the district had no match.

Photographed by Frandrin. The city had some hotel rooms inthat is casablanca times more than Marrakech Colliez To the prostitution consternation of local authorities and businesses, they spent little time in Casablanca, which offered few attractions.

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Bousbir counts among the extraordinary achievements of French colonization, following in the example of bridges, dams, ports, hospitals and schools, which, as manifest proof of the benefits of the French presence, participated in other ways in the colonial object lesson fig.

Tourists visited Bousbir as spectators.

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The district was an everyday place only for those who worked there ; for all the visitors, Bousbir was another world. It was logical that there colonial authorities would seek a modern and rational response to the question of prostitution Maghraouiand to be expected that they would formulate it in spatial terms.

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Europeans women as well as men? The district was conceived in a neo-Moorish style suggesting the scenery of the Thousand and One Nights. This conceptual triangle is approached from each of its sides : tourism-colonization, tourism-sexuality, colonization-sexuality to cite but one ificant reference for each of these articulations, see Zytnicki et KazdaghliBrennanMcClintock Its configuration taken as a whole however has hardly been explored : it constitutes the theoretical concern of the present text, which addresses the question of the sexual dimension of colonial tourism, and the colonial dimension of sexual tourism.

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The district was a stop in the tourist tour, the last but probably not the least. The phenomenon of Bousbir is not limited to the aspects brought up here, and invites other lines of inquiry MaghraouiStaszakTaraud This seemingly trivial question is the point of departure for this text.

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These images show an achievement of urban planning, from which one perceives the style, uniqueness, audacity, scope, order and modernity of Bousbir—in short, its success. Casablanca, aerial view of the red-light district known as Bousbir.

Figure 4.

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Finally, the nearby inhabitants of Casablanca and the surrounding region, natives or not, regularly could visit Bousibir and frequent its brothels. Flandrin, the photographer and publisher of most of the postcards depicting Bousbir, took care to have some of these labeled in French, English, as well as Arabic fig. Even for inhabitants of the Protectorate, Bousbir offered a special experience and its atmosphere could have considerable charm and appeal, enough to justify a visit in full view of everyone.

In parallel, some casablanca hundred different postcards, sold individually or in sets in Casablanca and probably Bousbir, featured the district. Red-light districts existed in numerous cities of Europe and the colonies, but none had been constructed specifically for this purpose as was Bousbir. The city brothels where European sex workers officiated morocco open only to clients, and did not present the same decor or ambiance as in Bousbir. The excursion to Bousbir thus was inscribed in a fourth tourist context : that of visits to the works of colonization.

Before setting off on special trains for more coveted destinations Rabat, Marrakech or returning to their prostitution, the tourists at best visited the port, the old medina judged of little interestthe European part of the city, the new medina and, above all, Bousbir. Between and women, Moors or Jews 4lived there and sold their sexual service to to 1, visitors per day Bernard The district was organized like an autonomous town but clearly had a prison-like character.

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He has captured Bousbir from up high from an airplane. The architect, Edmond Brion, had chosen to de the buildings and urban landscape according to the prostitution taste of the visitors to the district fig. Casablanca, a corner of the private ward. Duvivier, we morocco two rich Casablanca couples venture into the casbah of Algiers to take in the spectacle of exoticism and local prostitution, which indeed served as a first-rate asset for tourism Ferhati Such was the case with Storyville, in New Orleans, between and ; Yoshiwara, in Tokyo, up until the abolition of prostitution in ; and the red-light district of Marseille, before its destruction in The element of misery points to a third interpretation of tourism at Bousbir.

It was portrayed in multiple postcards fig. The last part draws out the lessons of colonial tourism in Bousbir so as to examine, on a critical and theoretical level, the relationships between tourism and prostitution.

Bousbir, as it is called, was the red-light district of Casablanca from to BernardMathieu et Maury 1. The red-light district of Amsterdam, De Wallen, has been equally described as a theme park, except that it was not conceived for that end, it was opened within the city, and it can be entered for free Aalbers and SabatNijman Bousbir, on the contrary, was very much created for receiving its visitors, and its enclosure heightened its similarity to a theme park.

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Bousbir offered an immersive, multi-sensorial experience 5 of the exotic and erotic atmosphere of the Orient. The appeal of Bousbir was in making available — at the same time morally scandalous and politically admirable — the indigenous female body in an oriental setting.

In, tourists visited Morocco ; in they edStafford Bousbir was among the most picturesque stops of their journey to the Protectorate. The history of Bousbir invites us to question the connections between tourism and prostitution, and more specifically between neo colonial tourism and sex tourism.

Bousbir in fact was not the only red-light district in North Africa to attract tourists.

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But there is nothing of it. This bias clearly does not imply that we should ignore the violence suffered by the sex workers 3 who worked there. Bousbir was a simulacrum Baudrillard ; the copy of something which did not exist. Thousands and thousands of shacks made out of metal sheets coming from old cans.

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Furthermore, some travelers, coming from the Maghreb Protectorate, passed through Casablanca for pleasure or morocco and may have on such occasions visited Bousbir as tourists, even if they were less easily recognized as such. Wyndham Lewisa British writer and painter, compared the two neighborhoods, even suggesting renaming Bousbir Strumpetville. Bousbir was a kind of erotic-exotic theme park, visited by casablanca the prostitution population and travelers. If tourism is defined as a displacement in pursuit of leisure away from the places of everyday life, all visitors to Disney are tourists, because the park is located absolutely elsewhere in an imaginary land.

Multiple actors were engaged in tourism development : colonial authorities highly involved in developing tourism at the general Residency — the seat of colonial authority in Morocco — and in each of the corresponding citieslocal morocco associations, tourist bureaus, cruise-ship and railroad companies which casablanca tours and owned the prostitution hotelsassociations such as the Touring Club de France or the Moroccan Automobile Club, the publishers of guides Hachette, Michelin and postcards Flandrin in Casablancaetc.

The second concerns tourist visitation to the district, and the third focuses on the nature of tourist practices in Bousbir.

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Photo Palace edition. Figure 1. One could also stroll along the streets while watching the women solicit clients ; stop at a terrace to take in the animated scene and listen to oriental music ; go to a belly dance, a strip-tease or, for the more audacious, a pornographic show ; taste the Moroccan cuisine ; admire the picturesque architecture ; purchase handcrafts or postcards. If one can risk the comparison, the same was true for Bousbir.

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But it was the many sailors called to port in Casablanca the fourth-ranking port of the French Union in and above all military personnel—colonial infantry, French-organized Berber regiments zouavesMoroccan and Senegalese foot soldiers, indigenous cavalry spahisForeign Legion, Moroccan soldiers of casablanca French prostitution goumiersetc. Staying in Casablanca for at least several days, at times alone, they were probably more inclined to avail themselves of the offer of prostitution then the international tourists.

Michelin Guide, Old postcards of Bousbir that I have found had been sent to a wife, a mother, a colleague or neighbor, without, in most cases it seems, causing moroccos, the text of the sender not even referring to the image on the other side. This might be plausible if Bousbir resembled other districts of Casablanca or other red-light districts. It was an essential stop on any visit to Casablanca, and hence to Morocco.

A visit to Bousbir formed part in this way in the object lesson of colonial tourism and justified colonization in its civilizing mission—despite the fact that it was the colonial authority that had orchestrated the red-light district.